In a large mixing bowl, whisk together the flour, sugar, cinnamon, salt, and baking powder.
Work in the butter just until the mixture is unevenly crumbly; it's OK for some larger chunks of butter to remain unincorporated.
Add the chopped apple and pecans. Gently toss to coat.
In a separate bowl, mix together the heavy cream, eggs, vanilla.
Add the liquid ingredients to the dry ingredients and stir until all is moistened and holds together.
Line a baking sheet with parchment. Sprinkle a bit of flour atop the parchment or pan.
Scrape the dough onto the floured parchment or pan, and make a circle. The circle should be about 3/4 inches thick.
Freeze for 30-60 minutes, uncovered. (Chilling the scones relaxes the gluten in the flour, which makes the scones more tender and allows them to rise higher. It also chills the fat (butter), which will make the scones a bit flakier.)
Preheat the oven to 425°F.
Remove from freezer and using a knife or bench scraper that you've run under cold water and dried, slice each circle into 6-8 wedges. (Much easier after chilling!)
Carefully pull the wedges away from the center to separate them just a bit; there should be about 1/2 inch space between them.
Brush scones with heavy whipping cream, making sure to cover all exposed sides. Sprinkle with turbinado sugar.
Bake the scones in the upper part of your oven for 18-23 minutes, or until they are a light golden brown. When you pull one away from the others, it should look baked all the way through; the edge should not look wet or unbaked.
Remove the scones from the oven, and cool briefly on the pan.
Drizzle the caramel topping over the scones. Serve warm.